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The different types of concentrates explained...

 

Which Type of Cannabis Concentrate Is Your Favorite?

 

1. Shatter

Shatter concentrate is by far one of the most popular forms of cannabis extracts. It’s glass like consistency makes it easy to smoke and handle. Shatter is often bought in parchment paper due to it’s sometimes sticky form.

shatter.png

 

2. Wax

Wax is a sticky form of cannabis concentrate. You will mostly find wax sold in silicone containers or small glass jars. Extracts with decarboxylated THC usually ends up sappier. This means wax can be a bit messy to handle without the proper dabbing tools.

Wax.jpg

 

3. Crumble

Crumble concentrate’s form fits the name. The texture of crumble makes it an easy product to handle with your hands. We don’t recommend storing crumble using parchment paper. Instead, use a silicone or glass jar to store crumble.

crumble.jpg

 

4. Rosin

Rosin is a special type of cannabis concentrate. Rosin in made without using any solvents. The process of creating rosin involves squeezing the dry cannabis buds using pressure and heat. It’s a widely popular cannabis concentrate as it is the most natural extract available.

rosin.jpg

 

5. Oil

Cannabis oil can come in a few forms. You will find cannabis oil in vaporizer pens and also in needless syringes. Oil is often made using CO2 or Butane. This usually provides a runny texture. Hints the name: Oil.

oil.jpg

 

6. Budder

Budder concentrate is similar to wax as it’s a form of BHO (butane hash oil). However, Budder has an opaque taffy like consistency. With it’s higher terpene profile, budder delivers a tasty smoke that most enthusiasts look for in cannabis.

budder.jpg

 

7. Live Resin

Extracted using live plants, live resin contains higher terpene profiles than any other concentrates. All other cannabis concentrates use dry plants, live resin takes advantage of the living plants aromas and extracts it into an unusually flavorful and pungent extract. There is more work that goes into the production process of live resin, this means you this product is usually reserved for consumers with more expensive taste buds.

live resin.jpg

 

These concentrates are also popularly called dabs.

 

The classification we’ll be looking at here relies on three different factors:

 

  1. Method of extraction – how were the active ingredients ‘pulled out’. This can be with either CO2, butane, or without any additives (using just heat and pressure).
     
  2. Part of the plant used – the whole cannabis plant can be used when making concentrates. However, the best parts are often the buds (flowers), which contain resin glands. Some types of concentrates will use exclusively them and will, therefore, be differently named.
     
  3. The consistency of the concentrate – your concentrate can be either very liquid or as solid as they come – or anything in between the two. The two most obvious examples would be your run-of-the-mill cannabis oils and shatter (which has a glass-like consistency).

 

Now that you have an inkling as to why there are so many types of weed concentrates on the market, let’s dive into the specifics of each one of them. Note: I will not cover every possible type in this post – that would take forever to read (and to write). Instead, I’ll focus on those that are more commercially available or otherwise more popular (great potency, clean extraction, and things like that).

 

 

Trim Run (Part of the Plant Used)

trim run.jpg

Large operations make massive amounts of weed concentrates of various types. Naturally, after the fact, they are left with what someone would call waste – stems, leaves, tiny nugs, and so on. Instead of discarding all of that, they make a lower quality concentrate. Concentrates made from these trimmings are all called ‘a trim run’ (a production run – goods produced using the same procedures, processes, or conditions), regardless of their consistency (they can be waxes, oils, or solids).

Trim run doesn’t contain as many beneficial cannabinoids as other types of concentrates. Still, that isn’t to say that it doesn’t contain any. The way to recognize trim run (and distinguish it from the more potent nug run) is by smelling it. If there isn’t much of an aroma, you’re probably dealing with trimmings.

Trim run offers a decent high, especially if you’re an occasional user. Where it falls short is the taste – trim run has more chlorophyll and will often leave a peppery flavor in your mouth. Still, if you’re using it to get high and not to enjoy the flavor, it should do the trick. Also, it doesn’t hurt that it’s one of the cheapest types of THC concentrates on the market currently.

 

Nug Run (Part of the Plant Used)

nug run.png

Similar to trim run, the nug run is used to describe a type of weed concentrate that’s made from using specific parts of the marijuana plant – the nugs (or nuggs, nugzz, or however else you want to call them). Basically, these are high-quality nuggets of buds and flowers, which are extremely rich in terpenes and cannabinoids.

A nug run is very flavorful and extremely potent. Connoisseurs appreciate it because the taste is unparalleled – it just doesn’t get any better than this, which is why it’s also dubbed ‘the nectar’. The downside, however, is that concentrates made from this high-quality material tend to be pretty pricey.

 

Butane Hash Oil (Method of Extraction)

butane hash oil.jpg

Butane hash oil (BHO) is created with the use of butane, which acts as a solvent and extracts all those juicy cannabinoids and terpenes. The process is not complicated but it is dangerous (and shouldn’t be tried at home unless you really know what you’re doing). BHO is very popular with users because it’s possible to get concentrates that are very high in THC. BHO is also used in the production of a number of other concentrates, such as nug run, hash, budder, shatter, and more.

Because the extraction is done with butane, some people don’t feel comfortable using those types of THC concentrates. The rationale here is that any amount of solvent is unacceptable when it comes to something that’s inhaled. I tend to agree but I also know that manufacturers take extreme precautions when it comes to getting rid of butane from their finished product. That said, BHO has a slightly harsher taste, so if you suffer from any lung afflictions (or just like a smooth ride), I’d skip it in favor of concentrates that have been produced using other extraction methods.

 

Propane Hash Oil (Method of Extraction)

propane hash oil.jpg

PHO again describes the extraction method only this time, we’re talking about propane and not butane. Everything else is pretty much the same. Some people prefer it because it can be made into a pretty good budder (kind of creamy/buttery concentrate) with vigorous whipping. Experienced PHO makers note that, depending on the strain, it’s possible to get more terpenes and fewer residuals by using propane.

 

CO2 (Method of Extraction)

Co2 extract.jpg

CO2 extraction, also less commonly known as supercritical fluid extraction, is solvent-free, mess-free, and very expensive. It’s also very popular with pros because the product is completely without toxins (unlike, as I’ve said, is the case with butane and propane), while retaining a terpenes-rich flavor.

CO2 cannabis extraction is done with the use of specialized equipment. In short, CO2 gas is forced multiple times through a container that has cannabis in it. As it passes through the plant, it liquifies, picking up cannabinoids and terpenes. Once the process is complete, the residue is left behind in a separate dish.

As I’ve said, CO2 extraction is very costly but it does result in some of the best types of weed concentrates out there. It’s usually used by serious manufacturers who create high-end products because the technician at the helm needs to be well-versed when it comes to various temperature and pressure settings.

 

Dry Sift (Method of Extraction)

dry sift.jpg

Good, old kief is known to everybody who has ever owned a weed grinder with three compartments. It’s that powder-like substance that collects in the last compartment (it usually takes ages to get an ounce of it) and it’s very potent. If you don’t know what it is, think again – the more common name for kief is hashish.

Dry sieving is a method of extraction that’s pretty similar to what happens in a grinder. You take buds and other plant material and rub it over a fine mesh. Those small, hair-like particles that collect underneath are called trichomes – they are where the marijuana plant stores a bulk of its terpenes and cannabinoids. You can either use the kief directly (smoking it or using it in your vaporizer) or create other kinds of cannabis concentrates with it.

 

Full Melt (Method of Extraction)

full melt.jpg

Full melt is a derivative of hash that can be made by employing a water and ice or dry sieve process. The end result is outstanding, regardless of the method you use. It’s a cross between sand and brown sugar when it comes to texture, but the potency is out of this world – with full melt, you get the highest level of terpenes and cannabinoids out there. That’s the main reason why it’s so difficult to find. Full melt is super clean – solvent-free, without any contaminants. The best way to use it is with a vaporizer or a dab rig.

 

Shatter (Consistency)

shatter2.jpg

If you’ve ever encountered a glass-type concentrate that puts you in mind of caramel candy, then you know what shatter is. Its glass consistency is where the name is derived from (shatter – get it?). It’s mostly created from BHO and PHO extracts and has high levels of THC and CBD.

Shatter is noted for its extreme purity, although there are variations here as well. It’s difficult to guess the quality of shatter just by looking at it – it can be transparent and low (well, lower) on THC and CBD, or murky but still have a high content of active substances. Still, if you’re buying shatter from reputable manufacturers, it will most likely contain 80% or more cannabinoids.

Shatter can’t be smoked easily because of its high evaporation point. Generally, you will have to use either a butane torch or a nail rig that you can heat up to 600 F before you can vaporize shatter.

 

Crumble (Consistency)

crumble.jpg

Crumble is yet another type of cannabis concentrate that’s made from butane hash oil. It’s made by purging the oil in a vacuum oven for quite some time (at lower temperatures for the best results). During that process, crumble develops a soft consistency (much softer than shatter) but it’s still brittle enough that it will crumble when handled.

Because it’s difficult to handle, crumble is often used in vaporizers or dab rigs. If you’re looking for something that’s highly potent, but still flavorful, it might be your best bet – this type of weed concentrate contains a lot of THC and other cannabinoids.

 

Wax (Consistency)

wax2.jpg

A cannabis concentrate that closely resembles honey is called wax. Even if you’re not a concentrate buff, you’ve probably seen it before – wax is easy to come by and it’s one of the most popular dabs in use. BHO and PHO are both a type of wax (although there are other types as well).

Wax concentrates have a very high content of THC and other cannabinoids (much higher than regular buds or trim runs) and need to be handled carefully. If you’re not used to vaporizing something so potent, the best advice I can give you is to start slow. Because wax is very runny, it’s difficult to handle without proper tools. The most common way of using waxes is with the help of either a dab rig or a personal vaporizer. Generally, waxes are around 4X more expensive than the buds they were extracted from.

 

Sap (Consistency)

sap.jpg

With the texture similar to that of chocolate, sap is one of the weed concentrates that is difficult to work with, especially on a hot day. That’s why it’s advisable to use it only indoors, in well ventilated and cool areas, where it won’t melt. Much like chocolate, sap will melt if handled with fingers, which is why I recommend using a tool when dealing with it. Sap has a similar potency to the best waxes out there so if you’re a beginner you need to be careful when using it.

 

Pull and Snap (Consistency)

pull-snap.png

If you like your concentrates a bit on the runny side but you still want to be able to handle it by hand, pull and snap is the way to go. This type of weed concentrate is similar to taffy, meaning that it’s pliable enough to be molded by hand, but you won’t make too much of a mess with it.

Pull and snap gets its name from a distinctive way you separate little dabs of the material – you simple pull and twist it until it breaks away. You can then roll it into a little ball to use in your vaporizer or a dab rig, or flatten it out and smoke it.

 

Budder (Consistency)

budder2.jpg

Probably the cleanest and the most sought-after concentrate on this list is budder. It gets its name from the fact that it closely resembles regular butter in its consistency. Budder is extremely pure and potent – 90% THC and 99% purity on average. It’s notoriously difficult to make since it has to be vigorously whipped during the purging process. That’s partly the reason why budder is so freakishly expensive.

 

Rick Simpson Oil

RSO.jpg

Rick Simpson Oil (or RSO) is a widely known type of THC concentrate that used mostly for medicinal purposes. Unlike regular medical concentrates, it is made from female plants that have over 20% of THC and buds and leaves are both used. This means that RSO has a high percentage of THC in it, which causes the users to experience various psychoactive effects.

RSO is mostly used in form of small pellets that are then placed under the tongue where they can be easily absorbed. Alternatively, they can be swallowed or vaporized. Most users recommend a low dosage at first, especially if you’re not used to THC.


 

Resin vs. Live Resin vs. Rosin: What's the Difference?

 

Resin

 

Resin, sometimes called “sap,” is the term that describes the gooey trichomes that appear on the flowers and sugar leaves of mature female cannabis plants. Trichomes produce all of the medical efficacy and psychoactive effects of marijuana, and if they’re dried, cured, and collected, the trichomes are called “kief.”

From an evolutionary perspective, resin acts as a defense mechanism for the plant, helping it to stay alive through its entire flowering cycle so that it can successfully reproduce. Not only is resin the source of all of the plant’s cannabinoids and terpenes, but it also does things like shield them from UV light. The aromatic terpenes manufactured by resin act as a deterrent to pests such as insects and animals, which might otherwise eat the flowers of the plant before they are able to reproduce.  

Cannabinoids (such as THC and CBD) and terpenes (like myrcene and linalool) are all contained in this resin. While more than 400 chemicals are found within a typical sample of smoked cannabis, extractions of cannabis resin offer a higher concentration of cannabinoids and terpenes.

Terpenes are extremely volatile molecules characterized by relatively low boiling points. This means that any resin extraction process involving heat — such as butane hash oil (BHO) or rosin — will necessarily destroy a portion of the terpenes. This, in turn, will decrease the medical efficacy of the sample.

“Resin” is also a common reference for the brown or black tar that builds up in pipes and bongs after several uses (especially if one is smoking high-potency herb). However, resin is resin is resin, whether it has been combusted via smoking or not. Some desperate pot smokers scrape the burned resin from their bong or pipe and re-smoke it in an effort to get every last bit of THC from their stash.

 

Rosin

 

Rosin, also called “rosin tech,” is a cannabis concentrate in which the dried and cured flowers of the plant are pressed under a combination of heat and pressure to release the THC-rich resin. Unlike more traditional forms of extraction, such as BHO and CO2, the production of rosin can be accomplished safely in one’s home.

While BHO concentrates are often backyard brewed, the process involves dangerous solvents that are infamous for causing explosions and burning down apartment buildings (typically due to improper handling). Similarly, CO2 extraction requires trained operators and expensive equipment costing $100,000 to $250,000 per machine that operate at about 10,000 psi. In other words, both BHO and CO2 extraction are decidedly-industrial procedures requiring specialized machines and facilities.

Rosin offers a safe and healthy alternative involving absolutely no potentially harmful extraction solvents. For as little as $30 for a consumer-grade hair straightener, users can press their marijuana buds for a few seconds to create a concentrated golden oil. Of course, one must remember the “garbage in, garbage out” rule: the quality of homebrew rosin is highly dependent upon the potency and purity of the flowers employed in its production.

Some innovative dispensaries in California are beginning to offer onsite rosin presses to their customers. This allows shoppers the option of pressing some or all of the flowers they purchase at the retail outlet to affordably and conveniently extend the variety of cannabis in their medicine cabinet.

 

Live Resin

 

Live resin is the latest form of cannabis concentrate to emerge in legal states like California, Colorado, Oregon, and Washington. Unlike rosin, but like BHO and CO2 concentrates, live resin requires expensive laboratory equipment and trained technicians.

This increasingly popular and unique form of cannabis concentrate involves the cryogenic freezing of a freshly-harvested plant at temperatures below -292 degrees F (-180 C). This process is often labeled “full plant” or “full spectrum” because it involves the entire plant, including the flowers, leaves, branches, and even stalk.

Cannabis consumers who focus on terpenes and their medical efficacy gravitate toward live resin because it preserves the terpene profile of the plant. Other processes, such as CO2 and BHO, typically result in the loss of many or most of the terpenes because of the heat involved.

Because terpenes are responsible for the sometimes pungent odor of cannabis, live resin has a much more full-bodied aroma. In addition, live resin delivers greater medical efficacy because it provides more of these molecules that have been proven to fight cancer and reduce systemic inflammation.

Due to the special cryogenic freezing involved, live resin tends to be the most expensive form of cannabis concentrate. However, it is also the most promising in terms of preserving the medical efficacy and potency of a freshly harvested pot plant.

 
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One of my goals is to get enough yield yjis planting so that I can do some decent bubble hash and hopefully some shatter. I would do bho tho cuz because I it's no problem getting the cylinder and butane injection fitting. Dont worry. I wont blow up Mrs Wu's new kitchen like normal morons. I do it outside and have the equipment for thoroughly evaporating the nastys. I'd also like enough yield on this to do some bubble hash. Good ole amazon has some decent deals on the bags. It all depends on my outside plants and so far they looking real good.

 

 

Dang! I was gonna edit since soundrd like am idiot but as coincidence would have it, I was smoking sll of the above tonught and literacy ain't really working at the moment. Cheese b. hash and some shatter from... friend. Uh, I forget. Nevermind. Later.

 

Cheers.

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haha, I get like that too when I'm stoned, if anyone noticed, a lot of my posts are edited lol partly due to spellcheck changing my words and partly due to terrible spelling in general. 

 

I was just browsing amazon and looking at the bubble bags. They sell personal 1 gallon bubble bags for small batches. I think I'm gonna get me a 5 gallon 4 bag set before harvest. The 8 bags is a little to much.  

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ive had 3-5 and 8 bag sets, No major diff in them- just more to clean...lol....Its so easy and such a clean extract. Water hash reminds me of the paki hash in the 80s/90s i was smoking. plus you can keep it loose or heat press it into pucks.

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I only use 3 bags to make water hash! I smoke it all together anyway........rw

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ya I was going to say that. you really only need a 200-220 work bag and a 25-45 catcher bag. It really depends how much trim you have if its a few zips then less bags is fine if its 10 plus zips more bags will provide a much cleaner hash and some good cooking material too. Strains can vary too on more/less bags.

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That was a great post. I like these extracts but I don't know that much about them. Learned a lot, thanks. If legal I'd like to do some old school hash with the tub and a stick. Grow a patch of Afghani or such. Love that taste of hash. Come on government and legalize it already. I have work to do and it's really unhandy for me.

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Ironic but I got a real taste of some good shatter tonight. Buddy came over with his dab rig, some kind of battery powered deal with a water bong type stem the the water wouldn't come out of a real feat of engineering. Absolutely blasted right now after 3 big hits, wiped the nail on a raspberry cough hog leg that I'm fixing to spark before passing out watching the last of what I haven't seen of the upright citizens brigade. Damn I high. 

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Awesome. I seen those rigs you can hook up to the pen. Always wondered how they hit

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hydrology9.png&maxx=90&maxy=0One of these?.......rw

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3 hours ago, roofwayne said:

hydrology9.png&maxx=90&maxy=0One of these?.......rw

That's one is cool! I want one of those. Quite pricey

 

 I was thinking one of these

20181022_192312.thumb.jpg.efa6209653a1d7b61269d15e3338a805.jpg

 

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5 hours ago, roofwayne said:

hydrology9.png&maxx=90&maxy=0One of these?.......rw

Close, lacking the bong part.

2 hours ago, fruit_loops said:

That's one is cool! I want one of those. Quite pricey

 

 I was thinking one of these

20181022_192312.thumb.jpg.efa6209653a1d7b61269d15e3338a805.jpg

 

Very similar to this. Damn thing kicked my ass lol.

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Pull and Snap consistency works better for me. I use concentrates , some strains really didn't help me manage my chronic pain. But now I want to try vape pens. Please give me some advice which one is better or really it's a good idea to consume it? :smoking-rapper:

Edited by PureGro1
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13 hours ago, Amywilson said:

Pull and Snap consistency works better for me. I use concentrates , some strains really didn't help me manage my chronic pain. But now I want to try vape pens. Please give me some advice which one is better or really it's a good idea to consume it? :smoking-rapper:

 

Its fine to consume depending on how it was extracted and what carrier is used for the vape oil...Not a huge difference in vape pens, get it from someone you trust and if it tastes funny or burns your throat I wouldnt vape it. 

 

The thing for me with vape pens is I can get relief and keep a clearer head at same time, I honestly like hybrids for vape pens- more sativa than I would do if it was flowers or other concentrates.

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So I'm leaning a lot more about these cartridges. I really like the kingpins. Was supposed to get a jilly beans but tank wouldn't fire off or whatever it does witch seems to be a problem with these things. That's the 3 one I've run across. One brass knuckle, a kingpin and a blacktip for lack of a name brand. I ran across some really mean homemade one's that really kick my ass. Wonder if it is consternation or terpens or idk I get really high and do stuff lol. 

Got jet, peace brothers

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    • By fruit_loops
      Which Type of Cannabis Concentrate Is Your Favorite?
       
      1. Shatter
      Shatter concentrate is by far one of the most popular forms of cannabis extracts. It’s glass like consistency makes it easy to smoke and handle. Shatter is often bought in parchment paper due to it’s sometimes sticky form.

       
      2. Wax
      Wax is a sticky form of cannabis concentrate. You will mostly find wax sold in silicone containers or small glass jars. Extracts with decarboxylated THC usually ends up sappier. This means wax can be a bit messy to handle without the proper dabbing tools.

       
      3. Crumble
      Crumble concentrate’s form fits the name. The texture of crumble makes it an easy product to handle with your hands. We don’t recommend storing crumble using parchment paper. Instead, use a silicone or glass jar to store crumble.

       
      4. Rosin
      Rosin is a special type of cannabis concentrate. Rosin in made without using any solvents. The process of creating rosin involves squeezing the dry cannabis buds using pressure and heat. It’s a widely popular cannabis concentrate as it is the most natural extract available.

       
      5. Oil
      Cannabis oil can come in a few forms. You will find cannabis oil in vaporizer pens and also in needless syringes. Oil is often made using CO2 or Butane. This usually provides a runny texture. Hints the name: Oil.

       
      6. Budder
      Budder concentrate is similar to wax as it’s a form of BHO (butane hash oil). However, Budder has an opaque taffy like consistency. With it’s higher terpene profile, budder delivers a tasty smoke that most enthusiasts look for in cannabis.

       
      7. Live Resin
      Extracted using live plants, live resin contains higher terpene profiles than any other concentrates. All other cannabis concentrates use dry plants, live resin takes advantage of the living plants aromas and extracts it into an unusually flavorful and pungent extract. There is more work that goes into the production process of live resin, this means you this product is usually reserved for consumers with more expensive taste buds.

       
      These concentrates are also popularly called dabs.
       
      The classification we’ll be looking at here relies on three different factors:
       
      Method of extraction – how were the active ingredients ‘pulled out’. This can be with either CO2, butane, or without any additives (using just heat and pressure).
        Part of the plant used – the whole cannabis plant can be used when making concentrates. However, the best parts are often the buds (flowers), which contain resin glands. Some types of concentrates will use exclusively them and will, therefore, be differently named.
        The consistency of the concentrate – your concentrate can be either very liquid or as solid as they come – or anything in between the two. The two most obvious examples would be your run-of-the-mill cannabis oils and shatter (which has a glass-like consistency).  
      Now that you have an inkling as to why there are so many types of weed concentrates on the market, let’s dive into the specifics of each one of them. Note: I will not cover every possible type in this post – that would take forever to read (and to write). Instead, I’ll focus on those that are more commercially available or otherwise more popular (great potency, clean extraction, and things like that).
       
       
      Trim Run (Part of the Plant Used)

      Large operations make massive amounts of weed concentrates of various types. Naturally, after the fact, they are left with what someone would call waste – stems, leaves, tiny nugs, and so on. Instead of discarding all of that, they make a lower quality concentrate. Concentrates made from these trimmings are all called ‘a trim run’ (a production run – goods produced using the same procedures, processes, or conditions), regardless of their consistency (they can be waxes, oils, or solids).
      Trim run doesn’t contain as many beneficial cannabinoids as other types of concentrates. Still, that isn’t to say that it doesn’t contain any. The way to recognize trim run (and distinguish it from the more potent nug run) is by smelling it. If there isn’t much of an aroma, you’re probably dealing with trimmings.

      Trim run offers a decent high, especially if you’re an occasional user. Where it falls short is the taste – trim run has more chlorophyll and will often leave a peppery flavor in your mouth. Still, if you’re using it to get high and not to enjoy the flavor, it should do the trick. Also, it doesn’t hurt that it’s one of the cheapest types of THC concentrates on the market currently.
       
      Nug Run (Part of the Plant Used)

      Similar to trim run, the nug run is used to describe a type of weed concentrate that’s made from using specific parts of the marijuana plant – the nugs (or nuggs, nugzz, or however else you want to call them). Basically, these are high-quality nuggets of buds and flowers, which are extremely rich in terpenes and cannabinoids.
      A nug run is very flavorful and extremely potent. Connoisseurs appreciate it because the taste is unparalleled – it just doesn’t get any better than this, which is why it’s also dubbed ‘the nectar’. The downside, however, is that concentrates made from this high-quality material tend to be pretty pricey.
       
      Butane Hash Oil (Method of Extraction)

      Butane hash oil (BHO) is created with the use of butane, which acts as a solvent and extracts all those juicy cannabinoids and terpenes. The process is not complicated but it is dangerous (and shouldn’t be tried at home unless you really know what you’re doing). BHO is very popular with users because it’s possible to get concentrates that are very high in THC. BHO is also used in the production of a number of other concentrates, such as nug run, hash, budder, shatter, and more.
      Because the extraction is done with butane, some people don’t feel comfortable using those types of THC concentrates. The rationale here is that any amount of solvent is unacceptable when it comes to something that’s inhaled. I tend to agree but I also know that manufacturers take extreme precautions when it comes to getting rid of butane from their finished product. That said, BHO has a slightly harsher taste, so if you suffer from any lung afflictions (or just like a smooth ride), I’d skip it in favor of concentrates that have been produced using other extraction methods.
       
      Propane Hash Oil (Method of Extraction)

      PHO again describes the extraction method only this time, we’re talking about propane and not butane. Everything else is pretty much the same. Some people prefer it because it can be made into a pretty good budder (kind of creamy/buttery concentrate) with vigorous whipping. Experienced PHO makers note that, depending on the strain, it’s possible to get more terpenes and fewer residuals by using propane.
       
      CO2 (Method of Extraction)

      CO2 extraction, also less commonly known as supercritical fluid extraction, is solvent-free, mess-free, and very expensive. It’s also very popular with pros because the product is completely without toxins (unlike, as I’ve said, is the case with butane and propane), while retaining a terpenes-rich flavor.
      CO2 cannabis extraction is done with the use of specialized equipment. In short, CO2 gas is forced multiple times through a container that has cannabis in it. As it passes through the plant, it liquifies, picking up cannabinoids and terpenes. Once the process is complete, the residue is left behind in a separate dish.
      As I’ve said, CO2 extraction is very costly but it does result in some of the best types of weed concentrates out there. It’s usually used by serious manufacturers who create high-end products because the technician at the helm needs to be well-versed when it comes to various temperature and pressure settings.
       
      Dry Sift (Method of Extraction)

      Good, old kief is known to everybody who has ever owned a weed grinder with three compartments. It’s that powder-like substance that collects in the last compartment (it usually takes ages to get an ounce of it) and it’s very potent. If you don’t know what it is, think again – the more common name for kief is hashish.
      Dry sieving is a method of extraction that’s pretty similar to what happens in a grinder. You take buds and other plant material and rub it over a fine mesh. Those small, hair-like particles that collect underneath are called trichomes – they are where the marijuana plant stores a bulk of its terpenes and cannabinoids. You can either use the kief directly (smoking it or using it in your vaporizer) or create other kinds of cannabis concentrates with it.
       
      Full Melt (Method of Extraction)

      Full melt is a derivative of hash that can be made by employing a water and ice or dry sieve process. The end result is outstanding, regardless of the method you use. It’s a cross between sand and brown sugar when it comes to texture, but the potency is out of this world – with full melt, you get the highest level of terpenes and cannabinoids out there. That’s the main reason why it’s so difficult to find. Full melt is super clean – solvent-free, without any contaminants. The best way to use it is with a vaporizer or a dab rig.
       
      Shatter (Consistency)

      If you’ve ever encountered a glass-type concentrate that puts you in mind of caramel candy, then you know what shatter is. Its glass consistency is where the name is derived from (shatter – get it?). It’s mostly created from BHO and PHO extracts and has high levels of THC and CBD.
      Shatter is noted for its extreme purity, although there are variations here as well. It’s difficult to guess the quality of shatter just by looking at it – it can be transparent and low (well, lower) on THC and CBD, or murky but still have a high content of active substances. Still, if you’re buying shatter from reputable manufacturers, it will most likely contain 80% or more cannabinoids.
      Shatter can’t be smoked easily because of its high evaporation point. Generally, you will have to use either a butane torch or a nail rig that you can heat up to 600 F before you can vaporize shatter.
       
      Crumble (Consistency)

      Crumble is yet another type of cannabis concentrate that’s made from butane hash oil. It’s made by purging the oil in a vacuum oven for quite some time (at lower temperatures for the best results). During that process, crumble develops a soft consistency (much softer than shatter) but it’s still brittle enough that it will crumble when handled.
      Because it’s difficult to handle, crumble is often used in vaporizers or dab rigs. If you’re looking for something that’s highly potent, but still flavorful, it might be your best bet – this type of weed concentrate contains a lot of THC and other cannabinoids.
       
      Wax (Consistency)

      A cannabis concentrate that closely resembles honey is called wax. Even if you’re not a concentrate buff, you’ve probably seen it before – wax is easy to come by and it’s one of the most popular dabs in use. BHO and PHO are both a type of wax (although there are other types as well).
      Wax concentrates have a very high content of THC and other cannabinoids (much higher than regular buds or trim runs) and need to be handled carefully. If you’re not used to vaporizing something so potent, the best advice I can give you is to start slow. Because wax is very runny, it’s difficult to handle without proper tools. The most common way of using waxes is with the help of either a dab rig or a personal vaporizer. Generally, waxes are around 4X more expensive than the buds they were extracted from.
       
      Sap (Consistency)

      With the texture similar to that of chocolate, sap is one of the weed concentrates that is difficult to work with, especially on a hot day. That’s why it’s advisable to use it only indoors, in well ventilated and cool areas, where it won’t melt. Much like chocolate, sap will melt if handled with fingers, which is why I recommend using a tool when dealing with it. Sap has a similar potency to the best waxes out there so if you’re a beginner you need to be careful when using it.
       
      Pull and Snap (Consistency)

      If you like your concentrates a bit on the runny side but you still want to be able to handle it by hand, pull and snap is the way to go. This type of weed concentrate is similar to taffy, meaning that it’s pliable enough to be molded by hand, but you won’t make too much of a mess with it.
      Pull and snap gets its name from a distinctive way you separate little dabs of the material – you simple pull and twist it until it breaks away. You can then roll it into a little ball to use in your vaporizer or a dab rig, or flatten it out and smoke it.
       
      Budder (Consistency)

      Probably the cleanest and the most sought-after concentrate on this list is budder. It gets its name from the fact that it closely resembles regular butter in its consistency. Budder is extremely pure and potent – 90% THC and 99% purity on average. It’s notoriously difficult to make since it has to be vigorously whipped during the purging process. That’s partly the reason why budder is so freakishly expensive.
       
      Rick Simpson Oil

      Rick Simpson Oil (or RSO) is a widely known type of THC concentrate that used mostly for medicinal purposes. Unlike regular medical concentrates, it is made from female plants that have over 20% of THC and buds and leaves are both used. This means that RSO has a high percentage of THC in it, which causes the users to experience various psychoactive effects.
      RSO is mostly used in form of small pellets that are then placed under the tongue where they can be easily absorbed. Alternatively, they can be swallowed or vaporized. Most users recommend a low dosage at first, especially if you’re not used to THC.

       
      Resin vs. Live Resin vs. Rosin: What's the Difference?
       
      Resin
       
      Resin, sometimes called “sap,” is the term that describes the gooey trichomes that appear on the flowers and sugar leaves of mature female cannabis plants. Trichomes produce all of the medical efficacy and psychoactive effects of marijuana, and if they’re dried, cured, and collected, the trichomes are called “kief.”
      From an evolutionary perspective, resin acts as a defense mechanism for the plant, helping it to stay alive through its entire flowering cycle so that it can successfully reproduce. Not only is resin the source of all of the plant’s cannabinoids and terpenes, but it also does things like shield them from UV light. The aromatic terpenes manufactured by resin act as a deterrent to pests such as insects and animals, which might otherwise eat the flowers of the plant before they are able to reproduce.  
      Cannabinoids (such as THC and CBD) and terpenes (like myrcene and linalool) are all contained in this resin. While more than 400 chemicals are found within a typical sample of smoked cannabis, extractions of cannabis resin offer a higher concentration of cannabinoids and terpenes.
      Terpenes are extremely volatile molecules characterized by relatively low boiling points. This means that any resin extraction process involving heat — such as butane hash oil (BHO) or rosin — will necessarily destroy a portion of the terpenes. This, in turn, will decrease the medical efficacy of the sample.
      “Resin” is also a common reference for the brown or black tar that builds up in pipes and bongs after several uses (especially if one is smoking high-potency herb). However, resin is resin is resin, whether it has been combusted via smoking or not. Some desperate pot smokers scrape the burned resin from their bong or pipe and re-smoke it in an effort to get every last bit of THC from their stash.
       
      Rosin
       
      Rosin, also called “rosin tech,” is a cannabis concentrate in which the dried and cured flowers of the plant are pressed under a combination of heat and pressure to release the THC-rich resin. Unlike more traditional forms of extraction, such as BHO and CO2, the production of rosin can be accomplished safely in one’s home.
      While BHO concentrates are often backyard brewed, the process involves dangerous solvents that are infamous for causing explosions and burning down apartment buildings (typically due to improper handling). Similarly, CO2 extraction requires trained operators and expensive equipment costing $100,000 to $250,000 per machine that operate at about 10,000 psi. In other words, both BHO and CO2 extraction are decidedly-industrial procedures requiring specialized machines and facilities.
      Rosin offers a safe and healthy alternative involving absolutely no potentially harmful extraction solvents. For as little as $30 for a consumer-grade hair straightener, users can press their marijuana buds for a few seconds to create a concentrated golden oil. Of course, one must remember the “garbage in, garbage out” rule: the quality of homebrew rosin is highly dependent upon the potency and purity of the flowers employed in its production.
      Some innovative dispensaries in California are beginning to offer onsite rosin presses to their customers. This allows shoppers the option of pressing some or all of the flowers they purchase at the retail outlet to affordably and conveniently extend the variety of cannabis in their medicine cabinet.
       
      Live Resin
       
      Live resin is the latest form of cannabis concentrate to emerge in legal states like California, Colorado, Oregon, and Washington. Unlike rosin, but like BHO and CO2 concentrates, live resin requires expensive laboratory equipment and trained technicians.
      This increasingly popular and unique form of cannabis concentrate involves the cryogenic freezing of a freshly-harvested plant at temperatures below -292 degrees F (-180 C). This process is often labeled “full plant” or “full spectrum” because it involves the entire plant, including the flowers, leaves, branches, and even stalk.
      Cannabis consumers who focus on terpenes and their medical efficacy gravitate toward live resin because it preserves the terpene profile of the plant. Other processes, such as CO2 and BHO, typically result in the loss of many or most of the terpenes because of the heat involved.
      Because terpenes are responsible for the sometimes pungent odor of cannabis, live resin has a much more full-bodied aroma. In addition, live resin delivers greater medical efficacy because it provides more of these molecules that have been proven to fight cancer and reduce systemic inflammation.
      Due to the special cryogenic freezing involved, live resin tends to be the most expensive form of cannabis concentrate. However, it is also the most promising in terms of preserving the medical efficacy and potency of a freshly harvested pot plant.
    • By greengenez
      Psilocybe cubensis - Strain Guide
       
       
       
      The Truth About Different Types of Cubes:
      Most cubes look alike.
      All cubes grow in the same conditions.
      The differences between cube races, varieties or 'Strains' are, more often than not, minute.
      Some races are known for fast colonization, or large fruits... even high potency.
      BUT... these 'Facts' are often just vendor hype.
      Your results will most likely vary.
       
      The Truth About Cube Potency:
      If you want something that is very potent, you should probably try a different species and avoid cubes all together... either that, or eat more cubes. Agar will potentially allow you to select a more potent sub-strain. A few cube races and varieties are reported as being more potent than others... but there is no scientific evidence to strengthen the potency argument. Everybody wants the answer to this question... but all we have is opinion. Most people agree there are differences in potency from one type of cubensis to another... but they seldom agree on which cube is the most (or least) potent.
       
       
      The Truth About The Fastest Growing Cubes:
      Some cube races and varieties are known to grow at a faster or slower rate, on average, than others. There is evidence which suggests the fastest cubensis races produce the smallest mushrooms and the slower races and varieties produce the most bulky fungus. Ultimately it all seems to even out in the end (with a few exceptions). Also, the slow cubes more frequently display unique macroscopic characteristics (in other words, they are more likely to look noticeably different from other races) while the fast ones usually look like average (or smaller than average) cubes. It tends to take more time to grow a large or unique cube. If you are looking for a cube which produces a LOT of quick bulk, you may be looking for a long time... and you'd better work with agar.
       
       
      The Truth About Bulk:
      Race, variety or 'Strain' has little to do with bulk. With some work, any viable cube print should produce good flushes. Good isolation on agar, and good fruiting conditions are the only proven ways to get consistently bulky flushes. There are no quick and easy solutions. If you want bulk, first you are going to need diligent patience.
       
       
      The Truth About Selecting Your Spores:
      The thing that distinguishes most races, varieties or 'strains' is where they originated and who collected the first specimen. If you are interested in Tasmania, try some Tasmanian spores. If you like the story of how SG30 was resurrected by Shdwstr, try SG30. If you think Penis Envy looks fun, try it. They are all cubes. Pick one that interests you, and see if you like working with it.
       
       
      The Truth About Multispore vs. Strain Isolation:
      Agar allows you to work specifically with your spores but it costs more money and takes much more time. However, proper agar work will give you consistency from one grow to the next.
       
      Multispore inoculation is a turkey shoot. You never know what you are going to get. Mother nature is unpredictable. If you intend to use multispore, it is suggested you work with a classic and/or popular cube variety. Cubes that have been popular for 10 or more years tend to be popular for a reason, and their genetics have probably been limited (in a good way) by being selectively bred over and over again... generation after generation. You are more likely to see consistent results via multispore, if you use a proven race.
       
      There are possible errors.. PM me if you wish a correction.
       
       
       
       
      A Strain
      The A Strain is a classic cube. It was originally marketed by Mr. G., "Creator" of the B+.
       
      A Strain is well domesticated, and a good candidate for multispore inoculation.
       
      Albino A+ comes from a recent mutation of the A Strain.
       
       
       
       
      Acadian Coast
      According to Roadkill and Ralphster, the Acadian Coast Cube supposedly originated in Louisiana. While it has never been a popular cube, people who try it seem to enjoy it. There is little info here about the origins of this particular cube.
       
       
       
       
      Albino A+
      The Albino A+ is a unique cube.
       
      According to Workman from www.sporeworks.com, the Albino A+ is a recent leucistic mutation of Mr. G's A Strain. This means it is not a true albino, just very pale, with almost white flesh. A true albino wouldn't have dark spores. A+ does. Albino A+ caps sometimes have a sharp nipple. Not a prolific fruiter, but better than most true albinos. Because of its dark spores, AA+ may be a good candidate for crossing with other cubes. If you are interested in albinos, but you want to print them easily, you may wish to look at Albino A+.
       
       
       
       
      Allen Strain
      According to Roadkill, the Allen Strain was discovered by Mushroom John Allen near Ban Tailing Ngam, Koh Samui, Thailand. Roadkill domesticated the only wild print and named it after the man who discovered it. An ideal Allen Strain mushroom is reported (by Roadkill) to have an egg shaped cap just before the cap breaks from the stem and the fruits reach full maturity.
       
       
       
       
      Argentina
      This cube comes from... surprise! Argentina. Unfortunately, there is not much info here about this particular cube.
       
       
       
       
      Australia (a.k.a. Aussie)
      Information about the origins or unique traits of the Aussie Cube have been hard to find. It may have been discovered by B.I.O. but these rumors are as of yet, unconfirmed.
       
      Aussie cubes are known for (and nicknamed after) their golden or yellow coloration. They are commonly known as 'Gold Tops' in the Down Under.
       
      Australia has plenty of cows and a good climate for cubes. It seems the Aussie is an average (If yellow-ish) looking cube.
       
       
       
      B+
      The B+ origins have become a thing of legend. B+ is a classic cube and has been one of the most popular commercial cubes in history. It is very domesticated, and a good candidate, if you plan to use multispore.
       
      Nobody knows exactly where the cube which became B+ came from.
       
      Mr G... who, "Created" B+ swears it is a Psilocybe cubensis/azurescens hybrid... MOST people disagree with this statement... and chalk it up as a marketing ploy. Nobody has been able to prove the B+ is an Azure hybrid. It would be rather miraculous if Mr. G. succeeded. It is safe to say his claims are BEYOND belief.
       
      There no evidence to suggest cubes and azures could be crossed in this way. Although, some people say the caps of B+ resemble the cap of an Azure... and there are a few reports suggesting B+ spores may share some Azure traits as well. This is likely just wishful thinking.
       
      B+ is known for its LARGE fruits. You will likely need a well hydrated cake/casing/tub to get the most out of B+... otherwise the shrooms may not reach their full potential.
       
      B+ can be SLOWER growing than many other brand name cubes (but like EVERY cube, your experience may vary). B+ has been commonly known as a good choice for BEGINNING cultivators. Many believe B+ is very forgiving and can grow in a wide range of temperatures and conditions.
       
      To further the B+ mystery, for a time, Sporeworks accidentally sold a different strain (the prime suspect is PES Amazonian) under the B+ label. This mistake has since been corrected, but there may be several different 'strains' floating around the trade community under the name B+. This may explain why there is so much discrepancy in descriptions of B+ grows, including reports of hollow stems, varied colonization/growth times and fluctuations in potency.
       
      Speaking of potency, there are a surprising amount of reports of "Dud" batches of B+ (ie: not very potent). While most people swear by the potency of B+, there are many who think it is rather tame (at least, occasionally). Don't worry too much about potency. B+ was recently voted the most popular cube so it must do something right.
       
      Many say the B+ puts out good initial flushes, followed by smaller flushes of larger fruits.
       
       
       
       
      Ban Hua Thanon (a.k.a. BHT)
      According to Mushroom John Allen, aka mjshroomer:
       
      "This is the original shroom from which all Koh Samui Ban Hua Thann shrooms orginated rom.
       
      The first shroom I obtained three prints from. It was collected in the same field as the P. samuiensis. IT was then grown indoors in Europe and prints were obtained and sent to me.
       
      And so I present these prints for your pleasure and enjoyment.
       
      Here is a picture of the original mushroom involved."
       
       
       
       
      Ban Nathon Dhupatamyia (a.k.a. BND)
      Another Thai cube discovered by Mushroom John Allen.
      The original mushroom was collected right next to the military base and along the road that goes up to the Tarnim magic gardens at 450 meters altitude. These were collected just above sea level, maybe 60 feet.
       
       
       
       
      Ban Phang Ka (a.k.a. BPK)
      Discovered in Thailand by Mushroom John Allen. Reports by Ralphster of large fruits.
       
       
       
       
      Ban Thurian (a.k.a. BT)
      Discovered in Thailand by Mushroom John Allen.
       
       
       
       
      Big Mex
      Supposedly, the Big Mex comes from Mexico and was brought to us by Mr. G, creator of the B+.
       
       
       
       
       
      Blue Meanie Cube
      One of Keeper's cubes, the Blue Meanie Cube has caused a great deal of confusion. Blue Meanie has long been the nickname for the pan (copelandia) cyan, another magic shroom which grows in similar conditions as cubes but is much more potent. By naming a cube after another type of shroom, it has lead to a great deal of confusion, particularly when it comes to dosage. This single name has caused dangerous confusion.
       
      For more info, see the entry for Keeper Brand Cubes.
       
       
       
       
      Brazilian
      According to Roadkill, the Brazilian variety is, "A great strain, a must have."
       
      Like most South American cubes, Brazilians are known for their large fruits and aggressive colonization.
       
       
       
       
      Burma (a.k.a. Burmese Yangoon)
      According to Workman, "Original specimen was collected from buffalo dung in an unplanted rice paddie outside the city of Yangoon, Burma. Original collection supplied via Mushroom John by way of a gift from a Thai student who spent time collecting mushroom samples around Yangoon (formaly Rangoon), Burma (now Myanmar)"
       
       
       
       
      Cambodian (a.k.a. Cambo)
      Cambos are classic cubes.
       
      Rumors of Cambos potency and aggressive colonization abound. Cambos are quite popular among many cultivators.
       
      According to Ryche Hawk from www.thehawkseye.com Cambos are, "A very nice and fast growing cubensis from Cambodia. This cubensis was originally picked by John Allen while in Cambodia filming some of the psilocybe mushrooms that grow naturally throughout a lot of the country."
       
       
       
       
      Chilean
      According to Ralphster, this cube is, "Straight from the Chilean mountains".
       
       
       
       
      Colorado
      The Colorado Cube is an enigma.
       
      Rumors of cubes growing in the Rocky Mountain West are common. Unfortunately, there is no hard evidence to support these rumors. The stories of wild cubes in the Rocky Mountain West are likely stem from cultivators who use the story to disguise their grow op. Western cultivators may simply tell friends that they know how to find cubes in a cow pasture (especially FRESH cubes), instead of saying, "HEY! I GROW THESE MYSELF! I HAVE A COLLECTION OF PRINTS, SYRINGES AND JARS! I HAVE A MARTHA, AN ULTRASONIC AND A PC!!!!"
       
      Ralphster from www.ralphstersspores.com swears he was told the spores came from Colorado, but it is extremely unlikely the person who gave Ralph the original spores was telling the whole story. Without a great deal of human intervention, cubes would struggle to grow outdoors in Colorado's cold and dry, high altitude climate. Due to long winters, the potential wild cube growing season in Colorado is very short. This warm season is often very dry and also, too hot for cubes. While not entirely impossible, Colorado's conditions are simply not optimal for cubes. Not even in a good year.
       
      If the Colorado Cube really is from Colorado, it was likely gathered from a cultivator's well tended outdoor (or even indoor) patch... or a farm animal ate some shrooms in the Gulf Coast region and was quickly transported to Colorado where it pooped the spores out at the perfect time of the year for cube growth.
       
      A true Colorado cube would likely show some interesting microscopic traits, for example a Colorado cube should have unusually large spores. The further a native cube is from the equator, the larger the spores tend to be. If any such research has been done with the Colorado's spores, it is not readily available.
       
      Ralph was told the Colorado is from Colorado. He believes what he was told. There is little evidence to dispute or support the story... but it is more than likely someone told Ralph a lie or at the very least, unknowingly stretched the truth.
       
      It doesn't really matter if the Colorado cube really came from Colorado. It still makes for quite an interesting story.
       
       
       
       
      Colombian Rust Spore (a.k.a. CRS)
      The Colombian Rust Spore is a unique cube.
       
      Workman obtained a print of Colombian Rust Spore from grod31. Spore coloration is identical to PF Redspore but CRS is much less likely to abort. According to Workman, aside from its lighter flesh tone and rust colored spores, CRS is nearly identical to the B+ Type 2 which was accidentally sold as B+ by www.sporeworks.com for a time, before the error was discovered and corrected. It is suspected B+ Type 2 is actually PES Amazon which also originated from Colombia. Colombian Rust Spore, because of its stability, is a good candidate for crossing with other cubes.
       
       
       
       
       
      Costa Rica (a.k.a. CR)
      The Costa Rica Cube was discovered by Rhino.
       
      According to workman of www.sporeworks.com Costa Rica was, "Generated from a Costa Rican sample that was labeled as an unknown landslide mushroom."
       
      Ryche Hawk from www.thehawkseye.com has a more detailed story:
      "Another great sacred mushroom brought to you first by The Hawks Eye Sacred Mushroom Spores. This sweet cubie was found in the foothills surrounding Arenal Volcano, Costa Rica. Approximately 1000-1200 ft. elevation. Our good friend Rhino was thoughtful enough to take some spore prints from the mushroom specimens he collected while exploring various regions of Costa Rica. More on Rhino's story of finding this treasure below.
       
      Costa Rica is a magical kingdom. We have heard nothing but exciting stories over the years from our friends that have visited this tropical area of the world. We are glad to have a sacred mushroom from this region of the world that has been growing at the base of a highly active volcano for how many centuries? With Costa Rica lying on both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, I imagine this mushroom has heard many stories come through the winds. What kind of stories will it whisper to you?
       
      Here's Rhino's story:
      ****
       
      Our trip fell one month into the 'green season'
      as it is referred to by the Costa Rican nationals (Ticos y Ticas).....It
      was wet....to put it mildly but it did not spoil our trip one bit :-) We
      had a rented 4x4 (tiny) and we traveled to 4 different geographical regions
      within Costa Rica. We did not collect these specimens in a cloud forest region
      which are approx 3000'-4400' above sea level near the continental divide.
      The cubies were found in the foothills surrounding Arenal Volcano.
      Strangely, they call this area the Central Lowlands but it seems a lot
      higher. I checked for reference and determined that the area is
      1000'-1200' above sea level Having said this, cattle are raised from sea
      level to the highest summit throughout the country and we saw many enticing
      cow fields even in the highest areas. This time of the year the temps were
      a little cool in the higher regions that have perpetual moisture...or maybe
      not...daytime temps were in the low 70s and night temps dropped to the high
      50s/low 60s. Other times of the year, these areas see the 70s-80s that
      were constant in the area around La Fortuna and the base of the volcano.
      For this reason, I would think that cubies could be found in CR any time of
      the year with optimum conditions falling at different altitudes depending
      on the season. Due to the frequent downpours, the mushies we collected
      were a little soggy but stout.
       
      I have many pics and I have a great story about finding these mushies. I knew
      there must be cubies everywhere but I did not want to trespass and finding
      someone to ask was not too easy but I was determined to get onto someone's
      farm. While on an excursion to the chachagua waterfall in this vicinity, we
      came upon a rasta (hispanic rasta) fellow selling hand made jewelry and hand
      made pipes, bongs as well as hammocks and batiks (sarongs) along the side of a
      rural road. We stopped to have a look and began talk with the guy (Daniele)
      because I was looking for some green. He was extremely cool and invited us to
      his shop to smoke some herb. His shop was just behind his roadside stand and
      behind that his home. His place sat right in the middle of several farms and
      as we talked more I asked if he knew about psilocybe mushies and if they could
      be bought in Costa Rica. He laughed and said they are everywhere and they are
      free...only the herb cost $$. Cattle had not inhabited the fields immediately
      around his place for several months and the grass was waist high. He actually
      called a buddy of his (Mateo) and had him take us to a farm belonging to
      another friends family. The picture you have of the farmhouse is where I am
      talking about...nice place! We scoured the fields and only came up with only
      a handful that day but they said there are usually many more. Only 4 were
      printable. We saw several cubies that were waaay past their prime and were
      all slimy and blue. I did not mess with any of these of course. It had been raining
      heavily the last 24 hours and I think a couple of days later would have been
      productive but we had to travel to the next stop on our trip and could not
      stick around. We (Lana & myself) ate just a little bit for a buzz and sat
      outside with them as the sun set. Mateo ate a full dose and looked to be to
      be in full bloom after about an hour...lol. The guys played the bongos while
      we sat and made jewelry with all the beads and things Daniele had. It was a
      kick ass experience for us as we are city dwellers. We had planned to eat the
      four printing caps in a couple of days since we would be in the cloud forest
      but we could not get them dry fast enough after printing even with rice and as
      a result they got ruined. We were sad but very glad to have the prints
      instead. That way we can try this strain later after giving the spore prints to our
      friends at The Hawks Eye.
      the spore prints to our
      friends at The Hawks Eye."
       
       
       
       
      Creeper (a.k.a. Keeper's Creepers or KC)
      Easily the most popular of Keeper's Cubes.
       
      For more information see the profiles for Keeper Brand Cubes and Exit 8.
       
       
       
       
      Cuba (Camaguey)
      From the country that gave us the root of the word, "Cubensis"... really.
       
       
       
      Dakak Beach Philippines
      According to Ralphster, "The original of this strain was found at the same time as the Quezon. Fruits tend too be a little smaller than some."
       
       
       
       
      Dancing Tiger China
      According to Ralphster, "From the expert efforts of my good friend Agar. This strain is sure to please. These Cubes bruise dark blue and have a distinct oatmeal like flecking onthe caps."
       
       
       
       
      Dixieland
      The Dixieland cube was discovered in Alabama and isolated by Dial8, a member of the Mycotopia mushroom community.
       
       
       
       
      Ecuador (a.k.a. EQ)
      The Ecuador cube is quite popular. It, along with B+, are perhaps the most popular commercial cubes ever. EQ is a classic cube. It is very domesticated, and therefore a good candidate if you plan to use multispore.
       
      The original EQ specimin was originally collected in the mountains of Ecuador by B.I.O. According to B.I.O. himself, stated back in the year in 2000:
       
      "i brought this beautiful EQ strain 10 years ago from ecuador also one down from the amazonas.....the EQ mountain strain i collected in northern ecuador close to otavalo at 10.000 ft altitude....it was growing at temps around 70 F and its a slow colonizer....but a shaman told me that the mountainshrooms a clearer and stronger....
      BiO."
       
      EQ's can grow to be quite large, a common trait among many South American cubes. The caps can be quite huge with very dark prints.
       
      While not the fastest growing cube, the EQ makes up for it with its impressive flushes. There is little about the EQ to make it look different from other cubes. It is an average looking cube which often produces larger than average fruits. According to Workman, the EQ is slightly easier to pick than most cubes since the fruits don't cling to the substrate.
       
      For many years, EQ was known as a good cube for beginners, although any cube is a good cube for beginners.
       
      The Yosterizii cube is simply a renamed version of the EQ produced from a supposedly prolific EQ substrain.
       
       
       
       
       
      Elephant Dung
      This is another Thai cube credited to John Allen.
       
      From www.ralphstersspores.com
       
      "The Elephant Dung shrooms came from three prints collected from one shroom and a few other prints which are on deposit at Chulalongkorn university in Bangkok.” - John Allen
       
       
       
       
       
      Elephant Gate
      This is an elusive cube, if you find a print you are among a select few.
       
      According to Roadkill and mjshroomer, John Allen found the original specimen at a monastery near the Elephant Gate in Samui Thailand. Roadkill used the print to find a good isolate and has given out a handful of prints to other mycologists.
       
       
       
       
      Exit 8
      Very little is known about Roadkill's Exit 8 Cube, but it is worth mentioning because it played a roll in cubensis history.
       
      According to Roadkill:
      "Roadkill said:
      I contacted the Keeper by email...
      I told him that I had some new strains of Cubensis that I was willing to trade with him...
      he emailed me back and was very excited and wanted to trade with me.
      and he asked me what strains I was interested in getting from him.
      Told him I was interested in his Keepers Creeper strain...
      and asked him about where the Keepers Creeper strain was from...location wise.
      he emailed me back...
      and he said that the Keepers Creeper strain was from Jamaica.
      Who knows if he was telling me the truth.
      :crazy:
      The Keeper was very interested in getting his hands on my "Exit 8" strain.
      He liked the name of it!~
      lolzz
      I never traded him the "Exit 8" strain so if he comes out with it...
      it's not the real "Exit 8" strain.
      :smirk:
      The guy is a snake charmer!~
      plain an simple!~
      he would sell his own mother to make a buck $$$$
      ---
       
      As far as growing the Keeper Creeper strain goes...
      The Keeper Creeper is a good strain.
      fast colonizing, nice large fruits on bulk substrates if the growing conditions are right.
      and I won't talk about the trip...
      :crazy:"
       
       
       
      F+ (a.k.a. Florida White)
      F+ has never been very popular. Perhaps this is due to its name, which implies a mark of failure, according to American school standards. F+ supposedly originates from Florida. It was used by The_Chosen_One in a cross with PF Albino to create the elusive Falbino. There is little about the F+ which distinguishes it from an average cube.
       
       
       
       
      Falbino
      The Falbino is a unique cube.
       
      The story of the Falbino is a great tale for amateur mycologists everywhere.
      "It was PFA monokaryon isolate in lc with F+ spores germinated in it. the history can be a bit confusing i know. the mushroom itself is confusing."
      The result is a cross known as the Falbino. Compared to other true albino cubes, the Falbino is a prolific fruiter and not as prone to aborts. According to Workman, the Falbino grows upwards until it reaches maturity, then its stems tend to bend, much like Penis Envy. While the Falbino does drop spores, they are clear and hard to see unless printed to something dark like tin foil.
      "there are now a few different versions out there. the pure albino as noted here. the pigmented version which drops purple spores heavily. and the pigmented version which also produces albino fruits and chimeras* mixed in with the pigmented ones.
      *chimeras are fruits that have some pigment and some albino mixed together in one fruiting body.
       
      also, things will be possibly be getting more confusing in the near future as i have been working with a backcrossed version for some time now. the original backcross produced some giant pigmented fruits as well as large albinos. the pigmented fruits are now lacking most pigment so what we have is an almost albino mushroom that drops purple spores quite heavily. the fruits are also very heavy, but not great in number typically."
       
       
       
      Golden Teacher
      The Golden Teacher is a classic cube. GT is very domesticated and is a good candidate for multispore inoculation.
       
      Nobody seems to know where the Golden Teacher Cube came from but it was likely discovered in the Gulf region of the USA. This cube has been around for quite a while and has been sold by many vendors. It can produce average to large flushes of average looking cubes. Some GT's can grow to be quite large. Some may display a nipple on the top of the cap and according to Workman, the occasional 'wart'. Colonization and fruiting times may be a little slower than average. Opinions about the GT are quite mixed. Some love it, some hate it.
       
       
       
      Guadalajara
      From Guadalajara Mexico.
       
       
       
       
      Gulf Coast (a.k.a. GC)
      Gulf Coast is a classic cube. It originated in the Gulf Coast region of the U.S.A.
       
      GC is reported to be a fast and aggressive cube. GC has been around for so long, it is likely well domesticated. GC is a good candidate for multispore inoculation.
       
       
       
       
      Hanoi Vietnam
      Mushroom John Allen discovered this cube in Vietnam, he reports extreme blue staining and potentially high potency.
       
       
       
       
      Hillbilly
      Discovered in Alabama. Isolated by and named after Hillbilly, the guy who found the first specimen.
       
       
       
       
      Honduras
      From Honduras.
       
       
       
       
      Huautala
      This cube is from a history filled region. According to Workman:
       
      "The Huautla strain of Psilocybe cubensis is a recent collection from the wilds of southern Mexico in the region of Oaxaca near the village of Huautla de Jimenez. Huautla de Jimenez has gained notoriety as the hometown of mushroom shaman Maria Sabina.
       
      In 1954 Gordon Wasson and Allan Richardson became the first Caucasians to participate in a mushroom ceremony, conducted under the guidance of Maria Sabina near the village of Huautla de Jimenez. Wasson and Richardson each consumed specimens of Psilocybe caerulescens var. mazatecorum.
       
      Our good friend Club99 recently collected the Huautla variety of P. cubensis from this historically rich region."
       
      Another cube with the same name was sold by Mushmush in Europe for a short time.
       
       
       
       
      Katmandu Nepal
      There is very little info about this cube. Like most cubes, it was probably named after the place it was discovered.
       
       
       
       
       
      Keeper's Brand Cubes
      "Strains include: The Keepers Creeper, Tequila Spikes, Veracity Sincerities, Shooting Stars, Sanctuaries, Yin/Yang?s, Oasis, Northern Lights, Hairy Buffaloes, Illusion Weavers, Chimeras, Reality Benders, Blue Meanies (Cubensis), Nj6, The Star Gazer, Z-Strain
       
      BEWARE OF THE KEEPER!!!
       
       
       
      Koh Samui and Koh Samui Super Strain (a.k.a. KS and KSSS)
      Koh Samui was discovered by Mushroom John Allen. It is known to produce fatass (short but fat) cubes.
       
      According to www.thehawkseye.com
       
      "Another great psilocybe mushroom brought to us by Enthomycologist John Allen from his travels through Thailand. This beauty was picked in the town of Hua Thanon on the island of Koh Samui."
       
      Koh Samui is known for shorter than average fruits with meaty stems that are noticeably wider on the bottom than at the top. For its height, Koh Samui can have unusually large caps but Koh Samui from time to time, puts out some surprisingly normal looking fruits. Pins commonly have red tops with white spots. The caps turn red-brown with maturity.
       
      Koh Samui Super Strain came from a prolific Koh Samui isolate. There is much debate over weather KSSS is actually a, "Super Strain". Some people swear by it, some long for the original. Some think it is less varied in appearance than the original. Your results may vary. KSSS is likely just a more domesticated version of Koh Samui, so if you plan to use multispore, try the Super Strain, and if you work with agar, stick with the original.
       
      Many people are found of Koh Samui. It is usually easy to spot from picture alone. It is a great addition to any collection.
       
       
       
       
      Large Fruit
      According to Ralphster, in spite of its name, Large Fruit is an average sized cube. It was originally donated to Eric at the FSRE.
       
       
       
       
      Lizard King (a.k.a. LK)
      The Lizard King strain has an interesting history, and it was discovered by Lizard King who had a hand in finding several coveted Mexacanae specimens as well. Anand played a large roll in domesticating the Lizard King cube.
       
      What makes this cube interesting is that it was found growing on a mixture of wood and horse poo. Wood is not a common substrate for wild cubes but given the right conditions cubes will grow on damn near anything.
       
       
       
       
       
      Malabar India (a.k.a. Malabar or Mal)
      Malabar is a moderately unique cube. It was discovered by 3M in Malabar, India.
       
      The prints were given to several members of the online mushroom community and eventually, to vendors. Phrozendata, Roadkill and Thor all had a hand in domesticating the Malabar cube we know today.
       
      Malabar is known for its caps and veils. The veils may stay connected to the cap, even when the cap is fully mature. The cap itself is known to be dark in the center and it fades to a light yellow near the edge.
       
      Malabar is a beautiful cube, often with meaty stems and poor spore production.
       
       
       
       
      Malaysian
      Collected by Mushroom John Allen. According to Ralphster, this cube can frequently mutate.
       
       
       
       
      Matias Romero (a.k.a. MR)
      Matias Romero is a classic cube with a fascinating history.
       
      According to mjshroomer, the Matias Romero was discovered near the town of the same name, in Mexico by Dr. Steven Pollock one of the forefathers of cubensis mycology. Pollock is reported to be the first mycologist to use poo/straw to grow cubes. He also discovered the sclerotia producing Tampanensis (not a cube).
       
      As the legend goes, Professor Fanaticus, creator of the PF Tek likely created the PF Classic Cube we all know and love from Matias Romero spores which he purchased form Mr. Harris and the Homestead company in the PNW. PF Classic certainly does resemble Matias Romero.
       

    • By PureGro1
      Acquiring Good Seeds
       
      Quality seed strains are often difficult to obtain. This is especially true for people who hang in a predominantly straight crowd and know few people who partake in the fine erb. The rule of thumb is if the weed gets you pretty high then the seed is usually good to grow. Seeds coming from green bud are often better to grow because the strain is frequently acclimated to the growing season of northern latitudes. Jamaican and Colombian varieties can not be easily produced in northern latitudes because the strains produce bud too late in the season. The results of growing these varieties in most of the U.S. will be little or no bud growth before the first frost hits. Sativa strains usually grow taller than the indica or indica-sativa hybrids. This can be a major drawback especially in the fall when other plants are dying off and trees are losing leaves. Some growers have success crossing sativa varieties from southern climates with Indica, and creating an offspring that will bud more timely.
      When at parties, concerts, or other social events, keep an eye out for people breaking up bud and discarding seeds. The best time to look for seeds is from October to January because this is when most of the locally grown outdoor herb hits the market. Acquiring and maintaining a quality seed stock is the most fundamental task of a successful grower.
       
      Finding a Site:
       
      Aside from acquiring good seed, picking a prime location to grow is probably the most important task a grower is faced with. One of the best locations is in areas of grasslands that have small trees and bushes interspersed. Often a farmers field that has been out of production for ten years is ideal. Flood plains along rivers and streams are another good location, but the risk of losing seeds in the Spring or the harvest in the Fall due to flooding should be considered. Growers have also been known to plant in buckets in more rocky or mountainous terrain. This enables them to grow in areas that receive good sunlight but have rocky, untillable soil. Digging a site in areas of dense but short plant growth, like sticker bushes, is another suitable spot. The sticker bushes grow high enough to prevent people from seeing through them and also serve as a direct deterrence from people and large animals wandering into the site.
      A grower can often use animal and insect life to his advantage. Bees, tics, green flies and the like can discourage people from wandering through fields so areas having an abundant insect population are prime locations. The most important criteria for an excellent growing site are good soil, available water, sunlight, and suitable cover. Other factors are secondary.
      Good soil is sometimes hard to find but without it you won't get much of a harvest. So, if you find a site that is perfect for all other factors but has poor soil , you may want to consider bringing soil to the site. Soil is often the richest in areas where grassland vegetation has existed for a series of years. Grasslands recycle nutrients in the soil and form a thick layer of organic matter. Grassland biospheres require very little preparation to start growing, while other soil conditions require more work. Sandy soils often need potting soil or top soil along with a small amount of lime to make them more fertile. Soils with high amounts of clay need material, like peat moss, added to break up the clay and make the soil more porous. I'm a naturalist and disagree with some erb growing professionals who believe that planting along road sides can be productive. The lead and other toxic chemicals found in some of these soils is enough to discourage many vegetable growers from producing consumable or smokable plant material. If you live in a city, and lack your own means of transportation then use roadsides as your last resort.
      A close water source is also very important. A site close to the water table would be ideal since bringing water into the site can get tiresome and also dangerous. It can get very tiresome if you have many sites or even a few big sites. If you choose a site much higher than the water table or grow in buckets, you will quickly find that the amount of water needed during a dry summer will be enormous and will give you great incentive to find a site closer to the water table. The dangers in having to bring water to the sites are numerous. The greatest of these would be the chance of someone spotting you, possibly a cop. The second greatest would be the destruction of the foliage you have to walk through to get from the water source to the site. If you have to make more than one trip you run a big risk that a trail will become noticeable. Finding a stable water source in the summer can be another obstacle since small streams often dry up at this time. How often you will need to water is determined by the weather and that could require you to make unexpected trips to the sites. Each trip puts you at risk. Your goal is to minimize these trips.
      Sunlight is less important than the previous two components but is still essential. Plants should be in areas that receive at least five hours of direct sunlight per day. Morning sunlight is preferable since plants tend to respond better to it than to the afternoon sunlight. Growers who scout sites during the winter months must be able to visualize how the landscape will be shaded by trees, and the path the sun will take come Spring. Of course, the greater the amount of sunlight the better, but when choosing a site sunlight is just one of many factors that must be considered.
      The last criteria has nothing to do with plant biology, but rather focuses on minimizing the threat of unwanted attention from people wandering by. The cover should be both tall enough to keep people from spotting it and thick enough to discourage them from wandering too close to it. The best foliage to accomplish this is a large patch of big sticker bushes. If that's not available, look for foliage that grows to a height of six to eight feet by the fall and is far enough away from where someone might stray.
      The Ability to hide plants amongst the flora in fields is an art and skill improved upon through practice. One favorite technique is to hide plants on the south side of bushes so that passers by will have difficulty spotting the plant(s). Plants still get adequate light in spite of the appearance of being crowded by the larger bush. The best hiding spot for erb is where people have their view blocked from all sides and has the appearance of being impenetrable. In areas where the vegetation growth is less than three feet the erb may need to be trimmed back or tied to the ground in order to create smaller bushier plants. Fields with small vegetation growth may have poor soil or can be dry upland environments where the soil frequently becomes too dry so use caution. Making erb junior blend in with the other plants in the field will minimize risk. In order to grow plants efficiently, an outdoor grower must use the natural landscape to his or her advantage.
      Making a Trail
       
      One of the ways to ensure success is by creating trails that are not visible to passers by. This is easier in some places than in others. Areas having dense undergrowth with lots of sunlight can be ideal because plant growth is so rapid it will erase any damage to the vegetation between trips during the Spring and Summer. If you are growing plants in areas easy to spot trails then make the path weave back and forth so it becomes difficult for people to see a trail. Making a hidden trail to the site(s) is important because it allows the grower to minimize getting ripped off or worse, caught. People wander through undeveloped areas and follow trails to nowhere all the time. Their access can be limited through thoughtful planning of pathways and proper care in using them. When you walk through your entrance, do everything possible not to damage any of the foliage, especially toward the late Summer and early Fall. At this time of the year, damaged foliage usually will not regrow and this is when the plants need as much cover as possible. There are two things to keep in mind when making a trail to your site(s): 1) Can you see the trail you just made, if not that's great, if so look for ways to cover areas that look like a trail; 2) The more difficult it is for you to get to the site, the less likely someone else will try.
      The Mechanics of Growing
       
      Your cousin Louie and his friend Sam are in town from Oklahoma and they have smoked a lot of grass and grown some in their backyards. Sam has a good rap, and appears knowledgeable about fine erb. Taking these two gentlemen for a walk in the fields might appear to be a good idea. Shit, they could offer some insightful pointers. I must caution against these excursions. Even if these men are the erb experts they appear, taking a walk with them may not be in your best interest. They are unfamiliar with the area and may not know where to run if the need arises. Walking with more than two people through a field can attract attention (the greater the number of people, the greater chance of being seen). The more people walking on a trail the larger the trail becomes and thus the greater the chance your trail can be followed by others. Every time you visit the site(s) you are putting the harvest and for that matter yourself at risk. This may be a small or large risk depending on the particular place but remember that no place is 100% safe. Unless it is an emergency situation where the buggy fly has infested your crop, and you are bringing in a specialist to offer expert advice, the site(s) should not be visited by strangers. Having a growing partner is recommended regardless of his or her competence, and even then the site(s) should only be visited to accomplish specific tasks. Trips to the site should occur at the following times.
       
      1. Preparing The Soil:
      (early March - Mid April depending on climate)
       
      I suggest buying 40lb. bags of organic potting soil and mixing this in with the existing soil. This soil is not often found at your local all-purpose store so some searching may be required. Potting soil is richer soil than commercial top soil so it goes a little bit farther when mixed with the existing soil. Lime may be necessary in areas with acidic soil and peat moss is a good additive for soils with a clay type consistency. I avoid chemical fertilizers, not just because I believe that organic farming is the best way, but also because toxic waste is produced from the manufacture of fertilizers.
      It's also a good idea to put up a two foot high fence at this time. This will keep small animals out and the use of dried blood and/or human hair will fend off deer. Purchase a wire fence with small gaps, 2 inches or less between the metal strands. Collect enough sticks in the area to provide stakes that will support the fence about every 2 feet. Outline the site with the sticks and tie the fence to the sticks with string or wire. Cut the fence endstrand and bend the strands that protrude from the top of the fence out and down the outside to discourage animals from trying to jump over it. Camouflage the fence and site with normal ground debris as necessary before leaving.
       
      2. Planting:
      (early April - early May)
       
      There are different ways to go about planting:
       
      A) The seed intensive method:
      This method should only be used if you have an abundance of seeds. The seed intensive method entails planting many seeds in a small area. Its strength is that it can limit risk. When you journey to your newly prepared site(s), the seeds and trowels are hidden in your pockets. Plant the seeds about one half inch deep, unless the soil contains high amounts of clay then only plant seeds one quarter inch in the soil. If you setup small sites 3ft x 3ft square, put in three rows with a seed every one and a half inches. If you work out the Math this is roughly 72 seeds per site. Unfortunately, many growers, especially beginners, do not posses this many good seeds. If a grower creates four sites with this many seeds he or she is almost guaranteed a harvest. Yes, there will be some crowding and this is one of the drawbacks of using many seeds in a small area. Also, figure around 50% of the plants are going to be male so you must return to the site to cut out the males toward the end of Summer. Once the males are removed from the site, the females get more light and aren't as crowded. The seed intensive strategy tends to produce smaller plants because of crowding, but at the same time it helps ensure a harvest every season. In the present day of infrared photography, I believe it is important to have small sites to avoid detection from the air. This of course means growers may have to create a series of small plots in order to garner a year's supply of erb. If you grow merely for hobby, sport, or experimental purposes, than one site may suit you fine.
      B) Planting small seedlings:
      The strongest argument for this method of planting is that you get the opportunity to select for planting the strongest of the seedlings you've started. The strongest argument against this method is the risk of transporting the seedlings to their intended site(s). Transporting them requires you to find a method of concealing them, usually a box. The problem that then arises is that the size box needed to transport many plants may make this method too risky or totally impractical. The other concern with this method is that there is also the risk of shocking the seedlings when you put them outside in the site where they will be exposed to the harsh Spring weather. Before planting seedlings or sexed females they should be put outside and closely monitored at least three days before planting to become acclimated to the wind and change in temperature.
      This method works best when you can set up a small shelter near your sites that is enclosed but not insulated. This shelter can be as small as the site and 18 inches tall or big enough to walk in, providing you have a safe location for such a structure. Starting seeds in this shelter gives the benefit of acclimating seedlings to a temperature much closer to that which they will face when they are planted in the site and it will also protect them from any late Spring snows and/or frosts.
      C) Planting sexed females:
      The advantage of planting sexed females is obvious; every plant will produce buds. The sex of plants can be determined by growing them until they're four inches high, and then decreasing the amount of light they receive to eight hours. The males are then identified and removed in one to two weeks. This method requires being able to control the amount of light the plants receive each day, and also requires that plants be started indoors earlier than you would normally start (late February - early March). This method allows growers to spread their plants across a wide area in smaller sites and also to hide plants amongst small trees and shrubs. By spreading two dozen female plants throughout a ten acre area in individual sites, a harvest is almost guaranteed, providing that you remember where all the sites are. Growers are encouraged to create a map of their sites to insure against memory loss. Just remember to guard that map closely. Putting anything about your operations in writing puts you at risk.
       
      3. Weeding:
       
      Three weeks after the plants or seeds are in the ground return to remove weeds that are crowding out the kind erb. Three weeks after the first weeding a second weeding should take place. A third weeding is optional, by this time the plants should be large enough to compete with the weeds, however, if you are in a site that has strong weeds around it you may have to cut the weeds back at additional times throughout the year. Remember, weeding does not mean destroying all vegetation within three feet of a plant. Weeds can help hide your crop and protect your crop from hungry animals. Nearby vegetation can also help keep water in the soil from evaporating in the hot sun. So don't go overboard and be very careful, it's very easy to accidentally injure small plants or their roots trying to get rid of weeds.
       
      4. Removing Males:
       
      (If you are growing sexed females these trips can be omitted)
      Male plants will begin to produce their flowers and pollen as early as mid July for varieties acclimated to this climate. Varieties from more southern climates, may not start until mid September. This difference depends on the budding cycle of your variety, some plants start to bud earlier than others, so the exact time to cut the males will vary with the strain. If you are using a variety of different seeds it may be necessary to visit once a week from July 21 through September 15. The timely identification of a male plant is crucial to the success of the harvest. If the weather is exceptional during the time a male starts producing its flowers and you missed seeing the first signs during your last visit, you could wind up with a lot of seeds and little of the fine erb. A female can either generate a large seedless bud, a large bud with a few seeds, or a large bud that is almost totally seeds. The first case is achieved by removing all the male plants before any of their flowers open. The second case occurs when a few male flowers have opened but you remove them before any more open. The third case occurs when you miss-time the flowering of the male. This can be devastating if you have big female plants because you could loose 90% of the smokable erb to seed production. This last scenario may not always be bad though. If you are short on seeds for the next growing season, it may be prudent to let one or two males stand and fertilize a portion of the females. Good seeds are hard to come by, so if you have a strain you like, make sure to plan ahead and have at least a few hundred seeds for the future. The spotting of males is one of the most difficult of things to explain to a person that's never grown since it really takes careful attention to how the tops of male plants look at this stage of development. Even experienced growers will be unsure at times and will have to wait till the next visit to be sure. When a male enters the stage of flower development, the tips of the branches where a bud would develop will start to grow what looks like a little bud but it will have no white hairs coming out of it.
       
      5. The Fungus:
       
      Along with cops, thieves, animals, and insects, "the fungus" is another obstacle in the path of a successful growing season. When the buds are roughly half developed they become susceptible to a fungus or bud rot. It appears that growing conditions for the fungus are best when temperatures are between 60 and 80 degrees and the humidity is high. The fungus is very destructive and spreads quickly. It is a spore type of fungus that travels to other buds via the wind so it is impossible to prevent or stop if weather conditions permit it to grow. If things should go badly and the fungus starts to attack your plants, you must remove it immediately or it will spread to other areas of the plant or plants. Some growers will remove just the section of the bud that is infected whereas other growers will remove the entire branch. Removal of the entire branch better insures that the fungus is totally removed, and also enables the grower to sample the crop a few weeks ahead of time. The main point in removing the fungus is to be very careful. Since it is a spore type of fungus, the accidental jerking of an infected bud will release some of the spores and they could fall onto a lower bud so by the next visit, you might have to pull that bud too. Also be careful in touching the fungus with your fingers because your fingers could pick up the spores and then when you touch the next bud, the spores could cling to it and start eating away at that bud.
       
      6. Emergency Visits:
       
      The Real Estate and Construction Industries have conspired to develop housing near your crop and their "progress" must be monitored. A hurricane or tropical storm with winds over 50 miles per hour has visited your area. A drought takes place. etc. One of the drawbacks of growing outdoors is that you can not control for interference by outside forces. Emergency visits may be necessary but don't go crazy every time there's a bad storm. These plants are strong and can take some punishment.
       
      The Harvest
       
      Performed at night if possible. A nighttime run will limit the chances of someone seeing you. Do the most risky parts, such as carrying freshly cut erb where you could easily be spotted by a passing car, when the police jurisdiction changes shift. This can help ensure that officials do not spot you, and if a nosey nearby resident or passerby calls the police, it may take time before a car is dispatched to investigate. If harvesting at night, use flashlights sparingly so as not to attract attention, and bring extra batteries just in case(the rechargeable kind are recommended). When harvesting more than a couple of plants remember a small pocket knife because it makes the night move quicker. Unless you are planning to use the large fan leaves for cooking, remove them in the field so they don't take up a lot of space. If you have more than one variety of erb that you are harvesting bring various bags to put the different strains of buds in, and I would suggest using backpacks for travel to avoid suspicion and for easy handling.
      When to Harvest
       
      The time to harvest depends on several factors: bud development, weather, fungus, and thieves. Some strains mature earlier in the fall than others, depending on the latitude of the globe where the strain originated. You will need to pull Indica varieties in late September and Columbian varieties in late October. The weather may also force you to pull early. If there is a severe freeze heading your way, you are better off not chancing that the weathermen are wrong and pull at least a majority of what you have. Another case for pulling early is if weather conditions are perfect for the fungus to run wild. This will also force you to pull early. And of course if your site has been found or is in great danger of being found, you must pull everything to avoid loosing out on what would otherwise have been a great year. For instance, if you have a site in a corn field or other temporary situation, the harvest must occur at a point in time relatively independent of weather. Also try to find out if and when hunters start to roam the fields.
       
      One other thing to watch for is frost. Even a mild frost can damage plants so watching the weather closely in late September and throughout October is important. If your plants do get damaged by frost the herb is still harvest-able so don't give up entirely if you fail to chop before the first frost. If by some freak chance there is a frost in early September and the buds are still very small you may want to allow the damage to occur and then let the buds finish maturing rather than harvesting a small quantity of premature buddage. This type of situation is an on the spot call and you must consider many factors, such as bud size, weather predictions for the following weeks, strain of weed, location of site, etc., before deciding. Indica varieties usually mature sooner than sativa varieties, and the best time to harvest varieties acclimated to the Northeast is from late September to mid October. Those varieties not acclimated to the Northeast, such as Colombian or Jamaican, are best left to late October or even mid November if the weather permits. One other thing you want to avoid is harvesting in the rain. Moisture can lead to problems in the drying process such as molds and fungi. The dryer the plants at the harvest date the better.
      As mentioned before, it is important to acquire seeds from strains that can be grown at the latitude you are at, some Mexican or Colombian varieties may not develop mature buds until November and by then the weather becomes harsh. Knowing when your plants will mature is difficult for beginners or growers using new seeds for the first season.
       
       
      Planning and getting to a good drying location quickly is important so the buddage is not left in bags for longer than a few hours. If the freshly harvested bud remains in bags for too long (12 hours or more), molds and fungus will begin to destroy the erb. Once you get to your drying location you need to prepare the erb for drying. This entails removing excess fan leaves and other larger leaves. However, if the drying spot has a temperature higher than 85 degrees it may be beneficial to leave a few large leaves to keep the buds from drying too quickly. Typical places to dry are attics, closets, dresser drawers, and basements. The best position for a bud to dry in is hanging upside down in a location where air can circulate all around it. If you are fortunate to have a location that you can do this in, great, otherwise use a dresser drawer or some other concealed place. If you dry the buds in dresser drawers remember not to double stack the buds or the weight of the upper layer of buds will cause a flat spot on the buds underneath. Also remember to rotate the buds every day so the herb dries uniformly and you can check for any signs of mold or fungus. If space permits and you are able to retrieve the whole plant, roots and all, you can hang them upside down by the roots, but don't expect this drying procedure to yield higher quality bud. THC does not drain from the roots down into the buds, the THC forms in the resin on the buds. The entire drying process should take place over four to six days depending on the size and variety of bud, the temperature, and the relative humidity of the drying area. If the buds are dried too quickly, the flavor of the herb will become more harsh and the THC level may not reach its potential. If the is dried too slowly then molds and fungi may develop and have a similar effect. With any method of drying, the process must be monitored on a day-to-day basis. Room temperature is fine for drying as long as the humidity is kept low. If drying must take place in a cool damp place then a fan and possibly a heater should be installed to compensate.
      Posted May 9, 2012 by Rob.
    • By the_dank_one
      well ive have been looking and looking and reall havnt seen to much on it..
      mostly ive heard of '' blow outs" by trying to inject butane into a tube of strait kief
      also heard about adding bud or frozen marbles to break trichs...
      so after looking and looking i think i have found a method i am willing to try to turn kief into bho for dabbing.
      i recently have purchased 3 grams of PHO boy i do not like it it makes my teeth hurt.
      anyways...
      ive decided to use dry ice to separate the trichs from plant material..
      i need info..
      what size bubble bag do i need or would be best for collection?
      moving on..
      now to completely eliminate the "blow out" of injecting into a tube with strait kief i have decided to use the mason jar method to collect
      the butane.. here lemme show you.
      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VTVRYk0Zdg4
      here is another..
      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2-DzxZjUaCg
      this is completely different than ive made my dabs before.. after seeing the cooldown shakedown video i started getting the idea.
      using this mason jar method and a larger area to filter the amount of trichs from the keif should prevent the "gumming" up the filter which causes the "blow outs" "they" speak of when trying to melt keif with butane and extraction tube.
      im ready to move on this i just seeking opinions and advise from some guys with experience with keif... i mean shit i doubt im the first to think of this..not sure if im the first to wanna try it like this.
      i also need suggestion on how much keif to run per can of butane. 
      but im sure you get the jist of what im trying to accomplish.
      1 MAKE KIEF
      2 EXTRACT BUTANE
      3 ADD KEIF
      4 FILTER
      5 COOK
      6 VACUUM PRESSURE PURG
      ooo think i miss spelled the title lol...
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